1986 D.Phil thesis in Philosophy, Oxford: ‘Knowledge and Language’
1979 B.Phil in Philosophy, Oxford – pass with distinction (Thesis: ‘Rules and Language: an Examination of some of Wittgenstein’s Arguments’)
1975 B.A. Hons in Philosophy and Economics, University of Oxford – 1st Class
My main research focus through my career has been on testimony - knowledge at second-hand from the spoken or written word of others - and most of my publications have been on this topic. But I have also published in other areas of epistemology, including critique of Tim Williamson's 'knowledge-first' approach, on self-knowledge, and critiques of varieties of reliabilism. I also have a research interest in philosophy of mind, and in the philosophy of Wittgenstein.